Data & Images
|Product Name||Anti-PKR Antibody|
|Description||Rabbit IgG polyclonal antibody for Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase(EIF2AK2) detection. Tested with WB in Human.|
|Cite This Product||Anti-PKR Antibody (Boster Biological Technology, Pleasanton CA, USA, Catalog # PA2025)|
|Replacement Item||This antibody may replace the following items: sc-100378|sc-101783|sc-101784|sc-136038|sc-16565|sc-16565-R|sc-16815|sc-16815-R|sc-18768|sc-21949|sc-271889|sc-292629|sc-30143|sc-32010|sc-365239|sc-366778|sc-376837|sc-377103|sc-393038|sc-514626|sc-53523|sc-6282|sc-707|sc-708|sc-709|sc-79028|sc-79029|sc-79031|sc-81569|sc-98609 from Santa Cruz Biotechnology.|
*Our Boster Guarantee covers the use of this product in the above tested applications.
**For positive and negative control design, consult "Tissue specificity" under Protein Target Info.
|Recommended Detection Systems||Boster recommends Enhanced Chemiluminescent Kit with anti-Rabbit IgG (EK1002) for Western blot.
*Blocking peptide can be purchased at $50. Contact us for more information
**Boster also offers various secondary antibodies for Immunoflourescecne and IHC. Take advantage of the buy 1 primary antibody get 1 secondary antibody for free promotion for the entire year 2017!
|Immunogen||A synthetic peptide corresponding to a sequence at the N-terminus of human PKR(2-18aa AGDLSAGFFMEELNTYR).|
|Cross Reactivity||No cross reactivity with other proteins|
|Contents||Each vial contains 5mg BSA, 0.9mg NaCl, 0.2mg Na2HPO4, 0.05mg Thimerosal, 0.05mg NaN3.
*carrier free antibody available upon request.
|Concentration||Add 0.2ml of distilled water will yield a concentration of 500ug/ml.|
|Storage||At -20˚C for one year. After reconstitution, at 4˚C for one month. It can also be aliquotted and stored frozen at -20˚C for a longer time.Avoid repeated freezing and thawing.|
|Purification||Immunogen affinity purified.|
Protein Target Info (Source: Uniprot.org)
You can check the tissue specificity below for information on selecting positive and negative control.
|Protein Name||Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase|
|Molecular Weight||62094 MW|
|Protein Function||IFN-induced dsRNA-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase which plays a key role in the innate immune response to viral infection and is also involved in the regulation of signal transduction, apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Exerts its antiviral activity on a wide range of DNA and RNA viruses including hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), measles virus (MV) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HHV-1). Inhibits viral replication via phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (EIF2S1), this phosphorylation impairs the recycling of EIF2S1 between successive rounds of initiation leading to inhibition of translation which eventually results in shutdown of cellular and viral protein synthesis. Also phosphorylates other substrates including p53/TP53, PPP2R5A, DHX9, ILF3, IRS1 and the HHV-1 viral protein US11. In addition to serine/threonine-protein kinase activity, also has tyrosine-protein kinase activity and phosphorylates CDK1 at 'Tyr-4' upon DNA damage, facilitating its ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. Either as an adapter protein and/or via its kinase activity, can regulate various signaling pathways (p38 MAP kinase, NF-kappa-B and insulin signaling pathways) and transcription factors (JUN, STAT1, STAT3, IRF1, ATF3) involved in the expression of genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines and IFNs. Activates the NF-kappa-B pathway via interaction with IKBKB and TRAF family of proteins and activates the p38 MAP kinase pathway via interaction with MAP2K6. Can act as both a positive and negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathway (ISP). Negatively regulates ISP by inducing the inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) at 'Ser- 312' and positively regulates ISP via phosphorylation of PPP2R5A which activates FOXO1, which in turn up-regulates the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2). Can regulate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and the activation of NLRP3, NLRP1, AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes. Can trigger apoptosis via FADD-mediated activation of CASP8. Plays a role in the regulation of the cytoskeleton by binding to gelsolin (GSN), sequestering the protein in an inactive conformation away from actin. .|
|Tissue Specificity||Highly expressed in thymus, spleen and bone marrow compared to non-hematopoietic tissues such as small intestine, liver, or kidney tissues. Colocalizes with GSK3B and TAU in the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Elevated levels seen in breast and colon carcinomas,and which correlates with tumor progression and invasiveness or risk of progression. .|
|Sequence Similarities||Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GCN2 subfamily.|
|Subcellular Localization||Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Nuclear localization is elevated in acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), melanoma, breast, colon, prostate and lung cancer patient samples or cell lines as well as neurocytes from advanced Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients.|
|Alternative Names||Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase;184.108.40.206;Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2;eIF-2A protein kinase 2;Interferon-inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase;P1/eIF-2A protein kinase;Protein kinase RNA-activated;PKR;Protein kinase R ;Tyrosine-protein kinase EIF2AK2;220.127.116.11;p68 kinase;EIF2AK2;PKR, PRKR;|
|Research Areas|||signal transduction|protein phosphorylation|ser / thr kinases|other kinases||
Background for Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase
Dilution Ratios/Recommended Concentrations
At Boster we strive to provide the best Anti-PKR Antibody by testing all applications on non-spiked tissues and cell lines to ensure that the affinity of the antibody is enough to react to the endogenouse level of the target protein. Read more about our QC panel here.
|Recommended dilution ratios are listed below:|
Western blot, 0.1-0.5μg/ml, Human|
**Boster provides high sensitivity secondary antibody kits for Western blotting and IHC. For more info see Related Products below.
Anti-PKR Antibody Images
Click the images to enlarge.
Recombinant Protein Detection Source: E.coli derived -recombinant Human EIF2AK2, 35.0KD (162aa tag+ M1-K154)
Lane 1: Recombinant Human EIF2AK2 Protein 10ng
Lane 2: Recombinant Human EIF2AK2 Protein 5ng
Lane 3: Recombinant Human EIF2AK2 Protein 2.5ng
Lane 4: Recombinant Human EIF2AK2 Protein 1.25ng
1. Post-translational modification:phosphorylation, methylation, glycosylation etc. These modifications prevent SDS molecules from binding to the target protein and thus make the band size appear larger than expected
2. Post-translational cleavage: this can cause smaller bands and or multiple bands
3. Alternative splicing: the same gene can have alternative splicing patterns generating different size proteins, all with reactivities to the antibody.
4. Amino Acid R chain charge: SDS binds to positive charges. The different size and charge of the Amino Acid side chains can affect the amount of SDS binding and thus affect the observed band size.
5. Multimers: Multimers are usually broken up in reducing conditions. However if the interactions between the multimers are strong, the band may appear higher.,