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SKU:PA2025
Clonality:Polyclonal
Application:WB
Price: $200.00
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Overview

Product Name Anti-PKR Antibody
Description Rabbit IgG polyclonal antibody for Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase(EIF2AK2) detection. Tested with WB in Human.
Cite This Product Anti-PKR Antibody (Boster Biological Technology, Pleasanton CA, USA, Catalog # PA2025)
Replacement Item This antibody may replace the following items: sc-100378|sc-101783|sc-101784|sc-136038|sc-16565|sc-16565-R|sc-16815|sc-16815-R|sc-18768|sc-21949|sc-271889|sc-292629|sc-30143|sc-32010|sc-365239|sc-366778|sc-376837|sc-377103|sc-393038|sc-514626|sc-53523|sc-6282|sc-707|sc-708|sc-709|sc-79028|sc-79029|sc-79031|sc-81569|sc-98609 from Santa Cruz Biotechnology.
Host Rabbit
Isotype N/A
Validated Species Human
Application WB

*Our Boster Guarantee covers the use of this product in the above tested applications.

**For positive and negative control design, consult "Tissue specificity" under Protein Target Info.

Recommended Detection Systems Boster recommends Enhanced Chemiluminescent Kit with anti-Rabbit IgG (EK1002) for Western blot.
*Blocking peptide can be purchased at $50. Contact us for more information
**Boster also offers various secondary antibodies for Immunoflourescecne and IHC. Take advantage of the buy 1 primary antibody get 1 secondary antibody for free promotion for the entire year 2017!
Immunogen A synthetic peptide corresponding to a sequence at the N-terminus of human PKR(2-18aa AGDLSAGFFMEELNTYR).
Cross Reactivity No cross reactivity with other proteins
Pack Size 100μg/vial

Properties

Clonality Polyclonal
Form Lyophilized
Contents Each vial contains 5mg BSA, 0.9mg NaCl, 0.2mg Na2HPO4, 0.05mg Thimerosal, 0.05mg NaN3.
*carrier free antibody available upon request.
Concentration Add 0.2ml of distilled water will yield a concentration of 500ug/ml.
Storage At -20˚C for one year. After reconstitution, at 4˚C for one month. It can also be aliquotted and stored frozen at -20˚C for a longer time.Avoid repeated freezing and thawing.
Purification Immunogen affinity purified.
Isotype N/A

Protein Target Info (Source: Uniprot.org)

You can check the tissue specificity below for information on selecting positive and negative control.

Gene Name EIF2AK2
Protein Name Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase
Molecular Weight 62094 MW
Protein Function IFN-induced dsRNA-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase which plays a key role in the innate immune response to viral infection and is also involved in the regulation of signal transduction, apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Exerts its antiviral activity on a wide range of DNA and RNA viruses including hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), measles virus (MV) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HHV-1). Inhibits viral replication via phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (EIF2S1), this phosphorylation impairs the recycling of EIF2S1 between successive rounds of initiation leading to inhibition of translation which eventually results in shutdown of cellular and viral protein synthesis. Also phosphorylates other substrates including p53/TP53, PPP2R5A, DHX9, ILF3, IRS1 and the HHV-1 viral protein US11. In addition to serine/threonine-protein kinase activity, also has tyrosine-protein kinase activity and phosphorylates CDK1 at 'Tyr-4' upon DNA damage, facilitating its ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. Either as an adapter protein and/or via its kinase activity, can regulate various signaling pathways (p38 MAP kinase, NF-kappa-B and insulin signaling pathways) and transcription factors (JUN, STAT1, STAT3, IRF1, ATF3) involved in the expression of genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines and IFNs. Activates the NF-kappa-B pathway via interaction with IKBKB and TRAF family of proteins and activates the p38 MAP kinase pathway via interaction with MAP2K6. Can act as both a positive and negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathway (ISP). Negatively regulates ISP by inducing the inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) at 'Ser- 312' and positively regulates ISP via phosphorylation of PPP2R5A which activates FOXO1, which in turn up-regulates the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2). Can regulate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and the activation of NLRP3, NLRP1, AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes. Can trigger apoptosis via FADD-mediated activation of CASP8. Plays a role in the regulation of the cytoskeleton by binding to gelsolin (GSN), sequestering the protein in an inactive conformation away from actin. .
Tissue Specificity Highly expressed in thymus, spleen and bone marrow compared to non-hematopoietic tissues such as small intestine, liver, or kidney tissues. Colocalizes with GSK3B and TAU in the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Elevated levels seen in breast and colon carcinomas,and which correlates with tumor progression and invasiveness or risk of progression. .
Sequence Similarities Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GCN2 subfamily.
Subcellular Localization Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Nuclear localization is elevated in acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), melanoma, breast, colon, prostate and lung cancer patient samples or cell lines as well as neurocytes from advanced Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients.
Uniprot ID P19525
Alternative Names Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase;2.7.11.1;Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2;eIF-2A protein kinase 2;Interferon-inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase;P1/eIF-2A protein kinase;Protein kinase RNA-activated;PKR;Protein kinase R ;Tyrosine-protein kinase EIF2AK2;2.7.10.2;p68 kinase;EIF2AK2;PKR, PRKR;
Research Areas |signal transduction|protein phosphorylation|ser / thr kinases|other kinases|
*if product is indicated to react with multiple species, protein info is based on the human gene.

Background for Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase

EIF2AK2(Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 2-Alpha Kinase 2), also called PKR, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the EIF2AK2 gene. Activation of EIF2AK2 allows the kinase to phosphorylate its natural substrate, the alpha subunit of eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis(summary by Kuhen et al., 1996). By FISH analysis, Squire et al.(1993) assigned the EIF2AK2 gene to the boundary between chromosome 2p22-p21. Ben-Asouli et al.(2002) showed that human gamma-interferon mRNA uses local activation of PKR in the cell to control its own translation yield. IFNG mRNA was found to activate PKR through a pseudoknot in its 5-prime untranslated region. Taylor et al.(1999) studied the mechanism underlying the resistance of hepatitis C virus(HCV) to interferon. They demonstrated that the HCV envelope protein E2 contains a sequence identical with phosphorylation sites of the interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR and the translation initiation factor EIF2-alpha, a target of PKR. E2 inhibited the kinase activity of PKR and blocked its inhibitory effect on protein synthesis and cell growth.

Anti-PKR Antibody Images

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Anti-PKR Antibody
Anti-PKR antibody, PA2025, Western blotting
Recombinant Protein Detection Source: E.coli derived -recombinant Human EIF2AK2, 35.0KD (162aa tag+ M1-K154)
Lane 1: Recombinant Human EIF2AK2 Protein 10ng
Lane 2: Recombinant Human EIF2AK2 Protein 5ng
Lane 3: Recombinant Human EIF2AK2 Protein 2.5ng
Lane 4: Recombinant Human EIF2AK2 Protein 1.25ng
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FAQs

Q: Do you offer BSA-free antibodies? Keyword: Bovine serum albumin, carrier protein, conjugation
A: Yes, please contact us at support@bosterbio.com for more information about BSA-free antibodies and availability. The new BSA-free formula uses trehalose as a replacement to BSA. We have tested many alternative chemicals and found that trehalose protects the antibodies the best.
Q: Is your western blot protocol provided from the website applicable for all your antibodies? Keyword: applications, WB
A: The protocol is applicable for all our antibodies in WB, the NC Membrane(0.45μm or 0.22μm) and transfer time(70 mins or 50 mins) depends on the protein molecular weight, details can be found in included protocol.
Q: Can I conjugate markers to this antibody? Can I link custom conjugates to this antibody? Keyword: conjugation
A: The antibody is stored with BSA and cannot be conjugated with markers. Carrier free antibodies are available upon request. Please contact support@bosterbio.com
Q: What should I use for negative control?
A: Please contact us for negative control suggestions. You can also check expression databases such as genecards, uniprot etc. Due to logistic reasons, we do not sell serum or lysates that we use internally for positive or negative control.
Q: Where can I find troubleshooting information? What should I do if I have unexpected bands, high background, no signal, weak signal
A: You can find Boster's troubleshoot guides under tech support tab. Please contact us for further assistance on troubleshooting your experiment.
Q: What is the immunogen sequence of this antibody? Is this antibody polyclonal or monoclonal?
A: You can find the immunogen sequence under "Immunogen" and clonality in the product name.
Q: What is the expected band size? Why is it different than the observed band size?
A: The expected band size is predicted on the size of the protein. The actual band size may be affected by a few other factors including but not limited to:
1. Post-translational modification:phosphorylation, methylation, glycosylation etc. These modifications prevent SDS molecules from binding to the target protein and thus make the band size appear larger than expected
2. Post-translational cleavage: this can cause smaller bands and or multiple bands

3. Alternative splicing: the same gene can have alternative splicing patterns generating different size proteins, all with reactivities to the antibody.

4. Amino Acid R chain charge: SDS binds to positive charges. The different size and charge of the Amino Acid side chains can affect the amount of SDS binding and thus affect the observed band size.
5. Multimers: Multimers are usually broken up in reducing conditions. However if the interactions between the multimers are strong, the band may appear higher.,
Q: What is the suggested dilution ratio for Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and or ELISA standards? What is the optimal pH for the sample?
A: Check the datasheet for the product for details on dilution ratios for different experiments. You can find the datasheet button on the right side of the product page.
Q: What is the protocol you used for your Western blotting (WB) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC)?
A: Check our protocols under the tech support tab.
Q: What are some alternative names that could be used to describe this product?
A: Some common names include but are not limited to pkr antibody, eif2ak1 antibody