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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are immune receptors localized to the cell surface or intracellular compartments like the endosome. TLRs’ ability to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) make them key players in innate immunity.
When activated by PAMPs or DAMPs, TLRs recruit Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor proteins, like MyD88, to trigger other signal transduction pathways and amplify downstream signals that eliminate the microbial infection.
In cases of excessive immune responses, insufficient negative regulation of TLR signaling has been linked with autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases.
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