From overwhelmed to overachieving


We will stain your slides and you will get more done. Boster Bio offers easy-to-work-with histopathology services with a fast turnaround time.

Our IHC experts have experience in

  1. Academic research
  2. Laboratory developed tests (LDT)
  3. Companion diagnostic tests (CDx)

*Multiplex staining, digital scanning, and image analysis are available.

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Service Overview

Why Choose Boster For IHC CRO Service?

Because we are an antibody manufacturer with pathology focus

Since 1993, Boster has been manufacturing antibodies and reagents for pathology/IHC. Our founder came from a medical histology background and IHC has been in the company's DNA from day 1. With hundreds of IHC experiments performed each week and after 3 decades of continuous improvement, Boster's technical team has mastered the art of IHC. Till end of 2019, there were more than 5,000 articles published using IHC results obtained from Boster antibodies (source: Google Scholar, Bioz and CiteAb). With our history and size, Boster is able to provide you a unique combination of service quality, subject expertise and cost savings with our IHC service.

"The rat brains were beautifully sectioned."

"Boster Bio performed a very thorough IHC validation. Ken was professional and accommodating throughout the project. We will come back to do some more work with them. "

"Provided superior quality IHC images."

"Their service is fast and the cost is reasonable."

Partners & Customers

PhD-level support
great communication

since 1993



antibodies made

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Getting Started...

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Step 1: Tissue Preparation

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Step 2: Optimization

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Step 3: Staining

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Step 4: Scanning & Histological Analysis

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Service Details

We optimize the antibody to find the best working dilution ratio. Then, we stain tissues and cells of interest on an automated system.

Step 1: Tissue Preparation

If your samples require preparation, our immunohistochemistry services include the processing, embedding, and sectioning of samples. Services are available for the following types of samples:

  • Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues
  • Frozen tissues (Cryo or OCT)
  • Cell pellets

Step 2: Antibody IHC Optimization Service

Finding the best dilution ratio for a completely new antibody

For a new antibody (i.e. antibody that has not been validated with IHC), we start off with the initial optimization service to determine the best epitope retrieval method and primary antibody incubation concentration. Having developed many different IHC assays for customers, we found that the following two strategies work quite well for most cases:

Multi-level IHC Validation

  • Use well characterized reference materials, such as cell lines and specific tissue types, for initial antibody screening and assessment.
  • Use carefully selected tissue arrays to further assess the sensitivity and specificity of antibodies and detection systems.
  • Validate on pilot study samples to ensure the robustness and consistency of the IHC assays.
Plan Standard Price Sample Epitope Retrieval Antibody Concentration
1 Inquire CPA or TMA Acidic ER: Citrate
Basic ER: EDTA or Tris/EDTA
5 concentration titrations (2-log):
• Mouse antibody: 5, 2.5, 1, 0.25, 0.05 μg/ml
• Rabbit antibody: 2, 1, 0.4, 0.1, 0.02 μg/ml
2 Inquire CPA or TMA Acidic ER: Citrate
Basic ER: EDTA or Tris/EDTA
3 concentration titrations:
2X, 1X, 0.5X of recommended concentration using an IHC tested antibody

If required, we will perform another round of optimization using Plan 2, starting with the selected concentration from Phase 1

*IF/ICC: We adopt similar principles in designing immunofluorescence (IF) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assays. Please inquire for IF/ICC pricing.

Step 3: IHC staining on tissues of interest

using the antigen retrieval method and optimal concentration

We will then validate the antibody on sample sets using the conditions set in Phase 1. We can carry out the study automated on Leica Bond automated system or manually if requested. We offer cell pellet arrays (CPA) and tissue microarrays (TMA) that consist of different expression levels of the target of interest as the validation sample. To get the results in the most cost-effective way, we recommend customers to test on these arrays, because they can get the answer they want from a single slide (per testing condition).

Ready-to-use samples

Finding suitable samples is key to validating the specificity and sensitivity of the assay. We have in-house multi-human tissue arrays, both normal and tumor, for that purpose. We have a variety of samples for IHC development, including FFPE or frozen cell pellet arrays (CPA) and tissue microarrays (TMA) from human, mouse, rat, and etc. Our Special FFPE Cell Pellets Technique enables us to make cell smear slides with uniquely high homogeneity. Anecdotal feedback from our customers say it is the smoothest in the industry.

We can also accept sample slides provided by the customers.

For using our samples instead of providing your own, please contact us for sample availability and pricing. We can also procure special samples (e.g. disease specific) for you as part of our procurement concierge service.

*IF/ICC: We adopt similar principles in designing immunofluorescence (IF) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assays. Please inquire for IF/ICC pricing.

Step 4: Scanning & Histological Analysis

Scanning: We perform whole slide digital scanning using a Leica scanner. You can choose our routine 40X single layer bright field imaging. Multiple focal plane scanning (40X) is also available, which will yield one compiled image with guaranteed focus in every field.

Analysis: Based on your project needs, our team can offer the following analyses:

  • Standard H&E or IHC Analysis: Most commonly encountered analysis needs, such as tumor load, membrane IHC staining, nuclear IHC staining, etc.
  • Custom Algorithm Development: Fully customizable algorithm to analyze the most complex staining. Please inquire.
  • Clinical Pathologist Review: Request a board-certified clinical pathologist to interpret and score results. The pathologist will help determine the sensitivity and specificity of the IHC assays. Please inquire.

Additional Details

  • Standard plans are 3 or 5 concentration titrations. If the antibody clone is completely new, we recommend 5 concentration titrations. However, if you roughly know the dilution to start with from another assay, such as western blot, 3 concentration titrations should be enough.
  • To request a quote, please let us know which samples you would like to validate the antibody on. Common samples are available at the lab. If you need uncommon wild type or pathological samples that are not available in our lab, there could be extra cost for acquiring them.
  • Various IHC assays using antibodies raised in species other than mouse and rabbit, such as goat and rat, have also been developed on both automated and manual staining platforms.
  • For all IHC studies, optional negative controls, such as isotype or no antibody controls, may be included
  • If you have any questions, please feel free to contact [email protected] to discuss your project.

How to Work With Us?

Get a Quote

Tell us about your project and its requirements, so we can determine how to best serve you. Start your inquiry today.

Ship samples

After we receive the samples, Boster will perform whichever IHC service(s) you requested.

Get Results

You will receive the IHC images. For tissue processing service, we will ship the processed tissues to you.

IHC image showcase

Below are some of the thousands of IHC images we've developed internally and for our customers

Other Antibody Tests & Services


Q1. What is the price and turnaround time for the IHC service?

Please contact [email protected] for us to learn more about your project goals, which will help us determine the price and turnaround time.

Q2. What information do I need to provide to you to start the inquiry?

Please tell us:
  • How many samples would you like to process?
  • Have you identified the samples you wish to use for the study? If so, what are they?
  • Will you provide the samples to us or would you like us to procure them?
  • Have you identified the reagents to use for the study? If so, what are the targets and catalog numbers?

Q3. Do you provide the services for IF/ICC? What are the costs?

Yes, we do provide IF/ICC services. Please submit an inquiry.

Q4. Is it possible to set up a meeting to discuss my project?

Absolutely! We would be happy to set up a meeting to find out how our services can support your project. Please submit an inquiry to get started.

Q5. Do you serve customers outside of the United States?

If you can take care of sending your samples into the US, we would be happy to serve you.