Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR)

Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine into inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) called A-to-I RNA editing (PubMed:7972084, PubMed:7565688, PubMed:12618436). This may affect gene expression and function in a variety of ways which have mRNA translation by altering codons and hence the amino acid sequence of proteins; pre-mRNA splicing by altering splice site recognition sequences; RNA stability by altering sequences involved with nuclease recognition; genetic stability in the event of RNA virus genomes by altering sequences during viral RNA replication; and RNA structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein-RNA interactions.

Can edit both viral and cellular RNAs and can edit RNAs at multiple sites (hyper-editing) or at specific sites (site-specific editing). Its cellular RNA substrates include: bladder cancer- associated protein (BLCAP), neurotransmitter receptors for glutamate (GRIA2) and serotonin (HTR2C) and GABA receptor (GABRA3).