Double-stranded RNA-specific editase 1 (ADARB1)

Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) referred to as A-to-I RNA editing. This may influence gene expression and function in a variety of ways that have mRNA translation by altering codons and therefore the amino acid sequence of proteins; pre-mRNA splicing by changing splice site recognition sequences; RNA stability by altering sequences involved in nuclease recognition; genetic stability in the event of RNA virus genomes by altering sequences during viral RNA replication; and RNA structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein-RNA interactions.

Can edit both viral and cellular RNAs and can edit RNAs at multiple sites (hyper-editing) or at particular sites (site-specific editing). Its cellular RNA substrates include: bladder cancer- associated protein (BLCAP), neurotransmitter receptors for glutamate (GRIA2 and GRIK2) and serotonin (HTR2C), GABA receptor (GABRA3) and potassium voltage-gated channel (KCNA1).