Protein S100-A12 (S100A12)

S100A12 is a calcium-, zinc- and copper-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. Its proinflammatory activity involves recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration.

Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells through binding to receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of cell adhesion molecules ICAM1 and VCAM1.