Doublesex- and mab-3-related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1)

Transcription factor that plays a key role in male sex determination and differentiation by controlling testis growth and male germ cell proliferation. Plays a central role in spermatogonia by inhibiting meiosis in undifferentiated spermatogonia and promoting mitosis, resulting in spermatogonial development and enabling abundant and constant production of sperm.

Acts both as a transcription repressor and activator: prevents meiosis by restricting retinoic acid (RA)-dependent transcription and repressing STRA8 expression and promotes spermatogonial growth by activating spermatogonial differentiation genes, such as SOHLH1. Also plays a key role in postnatal sex care by keeping testis determination and preventing feminization: represses transcription of feminine promoting genes such as FOXL2 and activates male-specific genes.