In normal conditions, mutated antigens from tumor cells will lead to the activation of T cells that bind to and trigger apoptosis in target cancer cells. On the surface of T cells are PD-1 (programmed cell death-1) receptors whose ligands include PD-L1 and PD-L2.
Together, PD-1 and PD-L1/PD-L2 are involved with inhibiting T cell response so that the immune response is only initiated when necessary, avoiding chronic autoimmune inflammation.
However, tumor cells have utilized the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway to resist anticancer immune responses by producing abnormally high levels of PD-L1. When the PD-L1 ligands bind to the PD-1 receptors on T cells, the T cells become deactivated and anti-tumor activity is obstructed.
Click below to view & download the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway map.
Boster takes great measures to ensure product quality and to provide our customers with comprehensive data upfront. Our antibodies are validated using WB, IHC, and flow cytometry against a panel of over 250 tissues and un-transfected cell lines to ensure high affinity and crystal-clear IHC stains. In addition, we also validate our antibodies in a quantitative fashion by testing them on known quantities of recombinant proteins so that you know what to expect (e.g. if there is 1ng, 2.5ng or 5ng of the target protein in the sample). Every product is covered by the Boster Quality Guarantee, click below to learn more.