Road Map For The Hunt Of COVID-19 Drug Targets

Human COVID-19 Interacting Proteins:
332 human proteins identified to interact with SARS-CoV-2 proteins
67 identified as potential drug candidates

As the COVID-19 pandemic evolves, scientists around the world have been racing to study and understand everything about SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

In early March, new research revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 protein spike interacted with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and was primed by the enzyme TMPRSS2 (Hoffmann et al., 2020).

Further research led by the Krogan Laboratory discovered 332 human proteins that interacted with SARS-CoV-2 proteins in which 67 of those proteins could be used as targets for new drugs or potential drug-repurposing (Gordon et al., 2020). We’ve compiled the 332 genes into a table below.

Big Table Of All 332 Genes

67 drug candidates identified and noted in the table below.

Human gene SARS-CoV-2 gene Biological function of COVID-19 Gene Drug target (Potential Drug Candidate) Protein complex Biological process Boster Products
PRIM1 Nsp1 DNA replication DNA polymerase alpha Browse All Boster PRIM1 Products
PRIM2 Nsp1 DNA replication DNA polymerase alpha Browse All Boster PRIM2 Products
POLA1 Nsp1 DNA replication DNA polymerase alpha Browse All Boster POLA1 Products
POLA2 Nsp1 DNA replication DNA polymerase alpha Browse All Boster POLA2 Products
COLGALT1 Nsp1 DNA replication DNA polymerase alpha Browse All Boster COLGALT1 Products
PKP2 Nsp1 DNA replication DNA polymerase alpha Browse All Boster PKP2 Products
POR Nsp2 Browse All Boster POR Products
GIGYF2 Nsp2 Browse All Boster GIGYF2 Products
EIF4E2 Nsp2 Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster EIF4E2 Products
SLC27A2 Nsp2 Browse All Boster SLC27A2 Products
RAP1GDS1 Nsp2 Browse All Boster RAP1GDS1 Products
FKBP15 Nsp2 Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster FKBP15 Products
WASHC4 Nsp2 Browse All Boster WASHC4 Products
TIMM10 Nsp4 Mitochondria TIM Complex Browse All Boster TIMM10 Products
TIMM10B Nsp4 Mitochondria TIM Complex Browse All Boster TIMM10B Products
TIMM9 Nsp4 Mitochondria TIM Complex Browse All Boster TIMM9 Products
TIMM29 Nsp4 Mitochondria TIM Complex Browse All Boster TIMM29 Products
ALG11 Nsp4 Mitochondria Browse All Boster ALG11 Products
NUP210 Nsp4 Mitochondria Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster NUP210 Products
DNAJC11 Nsp4 Mitochondria Browse All Boster DNAJC11 Products
IDE Nsp4 Mitochondria Browse All Boster IDE Products
HDAC2 Nsp5 C145A Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster HDAC2 Products
TRMT1 Nsp5 C145A Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster TRMT1 Products
GPX1 Nsp5 C145A Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster GPX1 Products
ATP13A3 Nsp6 Vesicle trafficking ATPases Browse All Boster ATP13A3 Products
ATP5MG Nsp6 Vesicle trafficking ATPases Browse All Boster ATP5MG Products
ATP6AP1 Nsp6 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate ATPases Browse All Boster ATP6AP1 Products
SIGMAR1 Nsp6 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster SIGMAR1 Products
DCAKD Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster DCAKD Products
NAT14 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster NAT14 Products
SCARB1 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster SCARB1 Products
CYB5B Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster CYB5B Products
PTGES2 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster PTGES2 Products
CYB5R3 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster CYB5R3 Products
RAB18 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Rab Signaling Browse All Boster RAB18 Products
RAB14 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Rab Signaling Browse All Boster RAB14 Products
RAB8A Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Rab Signaling Browse All Boster RAB8A Products
RAB7A Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Rab Signaling Browse All Boster RAB7A Products
RAB10 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Rab Signaling Browse All Boster RAB10 Products
RAB5C Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Rab Signaling Browse All Boster RAB5C Products
RAB2A Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Rab Signaling Browse All Boster RAB2A Products
RAB1A Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Rab Signaling Browse All Boster RAB1A Products
LMAN2 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster LMAN2 Products
GNG5 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster GNG5 Products
GNB1 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster GNB1 Products
NDUFAF2 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster NDUFAF2 Products
COMT Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster COMT Products
HS2ST1 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster HS2ST1 Products
QSOX2 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster QSOX2 Products
RALA Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster RALA Products
RHOA Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster RHOA Products
MTARC1 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster MTARC1 Products
SCCPDH Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster SCCPDH Products
SELENOS Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster SELENOS Products
AGPS Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster AGPS Products
TOR1AIP1 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster TOR1AIP1 Products
DNAJC19 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster DNAJC19 Products
MOGS Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster MOGS Products
ACSL3 Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster ACSL3 Products
FAM162A Nsp7 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster FAM162A Products
LARP7 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators 7SK snRNP Browse All Boster LARP7 Products
MEPCE Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators 7SK snRNP Browse All Boster MEPCE Products
MRPS5 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Potential Drug Candidate Mitochondrial Ribosome Browse All Boster MRPS5 Products
MRPS27 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Potential Drug Candidate Mitochondrial Ribosome Browse All Boster MRPS27 Products
MRPS25 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Potential Drug Candidate Mitochondrial Ribosome Browse All Boster MRPS25 Products
MRPS2 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Potential Drug Candidate Mitochondrial Ribosome Browse All Boster MRPS2 Products
SEPSECS Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster SEPSECS Products
ATE1 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster ATE1 Products
MPHOSPH10 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster MPHOSPH10 Products
NSD2 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster NSD2 Products
DDX10 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster DDX10 Products
HECTD1 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster HECTD1 Products
NGDN Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster NGDN Products
NOL10 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster NOL10 Products
AATF Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster AATF Products
SRP19 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Signal Recognition Particle Browse All Boster SRP19 Products
SRP54 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Signal Recognition Particle Browse All Boster SRP54 Products
SRP72 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Signal Recognition Particle Browse All Boster SRP72 Products
CCDC86 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster CCDC86 Products
NARS2 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster NARS2 Products
EXOSC2 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Exosome Browse All Boster EXOSC2 Products
EXOSC5 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Exosome Browse All Boster EXOSC5 Products
EXOSC3 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Exosome Browse All Boster EXOSC3 Products
EXOSC8 Nsp8 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Exosome Browse All Boster EXOSC8 Products
DCAF7 Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Browse All Boster DCAF7 Products
EIF4H Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster EIF4H Products
NUP54 Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Potential Drug Candidate Nuclear Pore Browse All Boster NUP54 Products
NUP88 Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Potential Drug Candidate Nuclear Pore Browse All Boster NUP88 Products
NUP62 Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Potential Drug Candidate Nuclear Pore Browse All Boster NUP62 Products
NUP214 Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Potential Drug Candidate Nuclear Pore Browse All Boster NUP214 Products
NUP58 Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Potential Drug Candidate Nuclear Pore Browse All Boster NUP58 Products
MAT2B Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Browse All Boster MAT2B Products
ZNF503 Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Browse All Boster ZNF503 Products
FBN2 Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Fibrillin Browse All Boster FBN2 Products
FBN1 Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Fibrillin Browse All Boster FBN1 Products
FBLN5 Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Fibrillin Browse All Boster FBLN5 Products
SPART Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Browse All Boster SPART Products
MIB1 Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Browse All Boster MIB1 Products
NEK9 Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster NEK9 Products
GTF2F2 Nsp9 Extracellular matrix Browse All Boster GTF2F2 Products
GFER Nsp10 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster GFER Products
GRPEL1 Nsp10 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster GRPEL1 Products
ERGIC1 Nsp10 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster ERGIC1 Products
AP2A2 Nsp10 Vesicle trafficking AP2 Clathrin Browse All Boster AP2A2 Products
AP2M1 Nsp10 Vesicle trafficking AP2 Clathrin Browse All Boster AP2M1 Products
TBCA Nsp11 Browse All Boster TBCA Products
RIPK1 Nsp12 Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster RIPK1 Products
RBM41 Nsp12 Browse All Boster RBM41 Products
PRRC2B Nsp12 Browse All Boster PRRC2B Products
PLEKHA5 Nsp12 Browse All Boster PLEKHA5 Products
PDZD11 Nsp12 Browse All Boster PDZD11 Products
MYCBP2 Nsp12 Browse All Boster MYCBP2 Products
LARP4B Nsp12 Browse All Boster LARP4B Products
CRTC3 Nsp12 Browse All Boster CRTC3 Products
AKAP8 Nsp12 Browse All Boster AKAP8 Products
UBAP2L Nsp12 Browse All Boster UBAP2L Products
UBAP2 Nsp12 Browse All Boster UBAP2 Products
ZNF318 Nsp12 Browse All Boster ZNF318 Products
ZC3H7A Nsp12 Browse All Boster ZC3H7A Products
BCKDK Nsp12 Browse All Boster BCKDK Products
USP54 Nsp12 Browse All Boster USP54 Products
TYSND1 Nsp12 Browse All Boster TYSND1 Products
TCF12 Nsp12 Browse All Boster TCF12 Products
SBNO1 Nsp12 Browse All Boster SBNO1 Products
PPIL3 Nsp12 Browse All Boster PPIL3 Products
SLU7 Nsp12 Browse All Boster SLU7 Products
GLA Nsp14 Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster GLA Products
SIRT5 Nsp14 Browse All Boster SIRT5 Products
IMPDH2 Nsp14 Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster IMPDH2 Products
NUTF2 Nsp15 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster NUTF2 Products
RNF41 Nsp15 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster RNF41 Products
ARF6 Nsp15 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster ARF6 Products
AKAP9 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Protein Kinase A Signaling Browse All Boster AKAP9 Products
PRKACA Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Potential Drug Candidate Protein Kinase A Signaling Browse All Boster PRKACA Products
PRKAR2A Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Protein Kinase A Signaling Browse All Boster PRKAR2A Products
PRKAR2B Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Protein Kinase A Signaling Browse All Boster PRKAR2B Products
PDE4DIP Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster PDE4DIP Products
HOOK1 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster HOOK1 Products
GOLGA2 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Golgi Apparatus Browse All Boster GOLGA2 Products
GOLGA3 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Golgi Apparatus Browse All Boster GOLGA3 Products
GOLGB1 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Golgi Apparatus Browse All Boster GOLGB1 Products
GORASP1 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Golgi Apparatus Browse All Boster GORASP1 Products
GCC2 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Golgi Apparatus Browse All Boster GCC2 Products
GCC1 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Golgi Apparatus Browse All Boster GCC1 Products
FYCO1 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster FYCO1 Products
HSBP1 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster HSBP1 Products
USP13 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster USP13 Products
MIPOL1 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster MIPOL1 Products
TLE1 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators TLE Family Browse All Boster TLE1 Products
TLE3 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators TLE Family Browse All Boster TLE3 Products
TLE5 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators TLE Family Browse All Boster TLE5 Products
CIT Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster CIT Products
TBKBP1 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster TBKBP1 Products
TBK1 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster TBK1 Products
GRIPAP1 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster GRIPAP1 Products
JAKMIP1 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster JAKMIP1 Products
CLIP4 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster CLIP4 Products
RDX Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster RDX Products
C1orf50 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster C1orf50 Products
ERC1 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Browse All Boster ERC1 Products
CENPF Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Centrosome Browse All Boster CENPF Products
CDK5RAP2 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Centrosome Browse All Boster CDK5RAP2 Products
PCNT Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Centrosome Browse All Boster PCNT Products
CEP112 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Centrosome Browse All Boster CEP112 Products
NINL Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Centrosome Browse All Boster NINL Products
CEP135 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Centrosome Browse All Boster CEP135 Products
NIN Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Centrosome Browse All Boster NIN Products
CNTRL Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Centrosome Browse All Boster CNTRL Products
CEP68 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Centrosome Browse All Boster CEP68 Products
CEP250 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Potential Drug Candidate Centrosome Browse All Boster CEP250 Products
CEP43 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Centrosome Browse All Boster CEP43 Products
CEP350 Nsp13 Epigenetic and gene expression regulators Centrosome Browse All Boster CEP350 Products
GOLGA7 Spike Lipid modification Protein Palmitoylation Browse All Boster GOLGA7 Products
ZDHHC5 Spike Lipid modification Protein Palmitoylation Browse All Boster ZDHHC5 Products
ALG5 Orf3a Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster ALG5 Products
TRIM59 Orf3a Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster TRIM59 Products
HMOX1 Orf3a Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster HMOX1 Products
VPS11 Orf3a Vesicle trafficking HOPS Complex Browse All Boster VPS11 Products
VPS39 Orf3a Vesicle trafficking HOPS Complex Browse All Boster VPS39 Products
SUN2 Orf3a Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster SUN2 Products
CLCC1 Orf3a Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster CLCC1 Products
ARL6IP6 Orf3a Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster ARL6IP6 Products
STOML2 Orf3b Browse All Boster STOML2 Products
CWC27 E Lipid modification Browse All Boster CWC27 Products
BRD2 E Lipid modification Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster BRD2 Products
BRD4 E Lipid modification Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster BRD4 Products
SLC44A2 E Lipid modification Browse All Boster SLC44A2 Products
ZC3H18 E Lipid modification Browse All Boster ZC3H18 Products
AP3B1 E Lipid modification Browse All Boster AP3B1 Products
FAM98A N Signaling Browse All Boster FAM98A Products
SNIP1 N Signaling Browse All Boster SNIP1 Products
CSNK2B N Signaling Stress Granules Browse All Boster CSNK2B Products
CSNK2A2 N Signaling Stress Granules Browse All Boster CSNK2A2 Products
G3BP1 N Signaling Stress Granules Browse All Boster G3BP1 Products
G2BP2 N Signaling Stress Granules Browse All Boster G2BP2 Products
MOV10 N Signaling RNA Processing Browse All Boster MOV10 Products
PABPC1 N Signaling RNA Processing Browse All Boster PABPC1 Products
RBM28 N Signaling RNA Processing Browse All Boster RBM28 Products
LARP1 N Signaling Potential Drug Candidate RNA Processing Browse All Boster LARP1 Products
PABPC4 N Signaling RNA Processing Browse All Boster PABPC4 Products
RRP9 N Signaling RNA Processing Browse All Boster RRP9 Products
UPF1 N Signaling RNA Processing Browse All Boster UPF1 Products
RPL36 N Signaling RNA Processing Browse All Boster RPL36 Products
DDX21 N Signaling RNA Processing Browse All Boster DDX21 Products
SAAL1 M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster SAAL1 Products
AAR2 M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster AAR2 Products
TARS2 M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster TARS2 Products
STOM M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster STOM Products
PSMD8 M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster PSMD8 Products
PMPCB M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster PMPCB Products
PMPCA M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster PMPCA Products
PITRM1 M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster PITRM1 Products
INTS4 M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster INTS4 Products
GGCX M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster GGCX Products
FASTKD5 M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster FASTKD5 Products
FAM8A1 M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster FAM8A1 Products
ETFA M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster ETFA Products
COQ8B M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster COQ8B Products
BZW2 M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster BZW2 Products
ATP6V1A M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster ATP6V1A Products
ATP1B1 M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster ATP1B1 Products
AASS M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster AASS Products
ACADM M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster ACADM Products
AKAP8L M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster AKAP8L Products
ANO6 M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster ANO6 Products
TUBGCP3 M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster TUBGCP3 Products
TUBGCP2 M Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster TUBGCP2 Products
RTN4 M Vesicle trafficking ER Morphology Browse All Boster RTN4 Products
YIFA M Vesicle trafficking ER Morphology Browse All Boster YIFA Products
REEP5 M Vesicle trafficking ER Morphology Browse All Boster REEP5 Products
REEP6 M Vesicle trafficking ER Morphology Browse All Boster REEP6 Products
SLC30A9 M Vesicle trafficking Solute Carrier Family Browse All Boster SLC30A9 Products
SLC30A7 M Vesicle trafficking Solute Carrier Family Browse All Boster SLC30A7 Products
SLC25A21 M Vesicle trafficking Solute Carrier Family Browse All Boster SLC25A21 Products
ECSIT Orf9c Mitochondria Respiratory Electron Tranport Browse All Boster ECSIT Products
NDUFAF1 Orf9c Mitochondria Potential Drug Candidate Respiratory Electron Tranport Browse All Boster NDUFAF1 Products
NDUFB9 Orf9c Mitochondria Potential Drug Candidate Respiratory Electron Tranport Browse All Boster NDUFB9 Products
ACAD9 Orf9c Mitochondria Respiratory Electron Tranport Browse All Boster ACAD9 Products
FAR2 Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster FAR2 Products
WFS1 Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster WFS1 Products
PIGO Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster PIGO Products
RETREG3 Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster RETREG3 Products
UBXN8 Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster UBXN8 Products
NLRX1 Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster NLRX1 Products
TMEM97 Orf9c Mitochondria Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster TMEM97 Products
ERMP1 Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster ERMP1 Products
TAPT1 Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster TAPT1 Products
PIGS Orf9c Mitochondria GPI-anchor Biosynthesis Browse All Boster PIGS Products
GPAA1 Orf9c Mitochondria GPI-anchor Biosynthesis Browse All Boster GPAA1 Products
SLC30A6 Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster SLC30A6 Products
TMED5 Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster TMED5 Products
SCAP Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster SCAP Products
BCS1L Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster BCS1L Products
NDFIP2 Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster NDFIP2 Products
DPY19L1 Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster DPY19L1 Products
F2RL1 Orf9c Mitochondria Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster F2RL1 Products
GHITM Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster GHITM Products
ABCC1 Orf9c Mitochondria Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster ABCC1 Products
TMEM39B Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster TMEM39B Products
ALG8 Orf9c Mitochondria Browse All Boster ALG8 Products
FBXL12 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster FBXL12 Products
POGLUT3 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster POGLUT3 Products
PLEKHF2 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster PLEKHF2 Products
CISD3 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster CISD3 Products
INHBE Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster INHBE Products
GDF15 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster GDF15 Products
SMOC1 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster SMOC1 Products
NEU1 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster NEU1 Products
PLAT Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster PLAT Products
POGLUT2 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster POGLUT2 Products
STC2 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster STC2 Products
NPTX1 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster NPTX1 Products
POFUT1 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster POFUT1 Products
HS6ST2 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster HS6ST2 Products
MFGE8 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster MFGE8 Products
ERP44 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster ERP44 Products
CHPF2 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster CHPF2 Products
EMC1 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster EMC1 Products
DNMT1 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster DNMT1 Products
ITGB1 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster ITGB1 Products
ADAM9 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster ADAM9 Products
PCSK6 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster PCSK6 Products
PLD3 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster PLD3 Products
PUSL1 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster PUSL1 Products
IL17RA Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster IL17RA Products
GGH Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster GGH Products
FKBP7 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster FKBP7 Products
FKBP10 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster FKBP10 Products
PLOD2 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster PLOD2 Products
COL6A1 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster COL6A1 Products
PVR Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster PVR Products
LOX Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster LOX Products
CHPF2 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster CHPF2 Products
NPC2 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster NPC2 Products
TM2D3 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster TM2D3 Products
ADAMTS1 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Browse All Boster ADAMTS1 Products
SDF2 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate ER Protein Quality Control Browse All Boster SDF2 Products
FOXRED2 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate ER Protein Quality Control Browse All Boster FOXRED2 Products
TOR1A Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate ER Protein Quality Control Browse All Boster TOR1A Products
NGLY1 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate ER Protein Quality Control Browse All Boster NGLY1 Products
HYOU1 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate ER Protein Quality Control Browse All Boster HYOU1 Products
SIL1 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate ER Protein Quality Control Browse All Boster SIL1 Products
ERO1B Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate ER Protein Quality Control Browse All Boster ERO1B Products
UGGT2 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate ER Protein Quality Control Browse All Boster UGGT2 Products
OS9 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate ER Protein Quality Control Browse All Boster OS9 Products
ERLEC1 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate ER Protein Quality Control Browse All Boster ERLEC1 Products
EDEM3 Orf8 Vesicle trafficking Potential Drug Candidate ER Protein Quality Control Browse All Boster EDEM3 Products
MTCH1 Orf6 Nuclear transport machinery Browse All Boster MTCH1 Products
NUP98 Orf6 Nuclear transport machinery Potential Drug Candidate Nuclear Pore Browse All Boster NUP98 Products
RAE1 Orf6 Nuclear transport machinery Potential Drug Candidate Nuclear Pore Browse All Boster RAE1 Products
HEATR3 Orf7a Browse All Boster HEATR3 Products
MDN1 Orf7a Browse All Boster MDN1 Products
BAG5 Orf9b Signaling Browse All Boster BAG5 Products
PTBP2 Orf9b Signaling Browse All Boster PTBP2 Products
CSDE1 Orf9b Signaling Browse All Boster CSDE1 Products
DPH5 Orf9b Signaling Browse All Boster DPH5 Products
CHMP2A Orf9b Signaling Browse All Boster CHMP2A Products
SLC9A3R1 Orf9b Signaling Browse All Boster SLC9A3R1 Products
TOMM70 Orf9b Signaling Browse All Boster TOMM70 Products
DCTPP1 Orf9b Signaling Potential Drug Candidate Browse All Boster DCTPP1 Products
MARK3 Orf9b Signaling Potential Drug Candidate MARK Kinases Browse All Boster MARK3 Products
MARK1 Orf9b Signaling MARK Kinases Browse All Boster MARK1 Products
MARK2 Orf9b Signaling Potential Drug Candidate MARK Kinases Browse All Boster MARK2 Products
CUL2 Orf10 Ubiquitin ligases Potential Drug Candidate Cul2 Complex Browse All Boster CUL2 Products
RBX1 Orf10 Ubiquitin ligases Potential Drug Candidate Cul2 Complex Browse All Boster RBX1 Products
ELOB Orf10 Ubiquitin ligases Potential Drug Candidate Cul2 Complex Browse All Boster ELOB Products
ELOC Orf10 Ubiquitin ligases Potential Drug Candidate Cul2 Complex Browse All Boster ELOC Products
ZYG11B Orf10 Ubiquitin ligases Potential Drug Candidate Cul2 Complex Browse All Boster ZYG11B Products
PPT1 Orf10 Ubiquitin ligases Browse All Boster PPT1 Products
TIMM8B Orf10 Ubiquitin ligases Browse All Boster TIMM8B Products
THTPA Orf10 Ubiquitin ligases Browse All Boster THTPA Products
MAP7D1 Orf10 Ubiquitin ligases Browse All Boster MAP7D1 Products

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Overview: These proteins were identified through affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS)

According to Krogan Laboratory’s recent publication, 332 human proteins have been identified to interact with SARS-CoV-2 proteins.

Affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) was performed to detect interacting proteins.

  1. Recombinantly expressed coronavirus proteins were transfected into HEK293T cells
  2. SARS-CoV-2 proteins were captured by reactive human proteins
  3. Mass spectrometry was run to identify the reactive proteins

Some observations about the 332 human proteins can be drawn from their findings:

  1. The identified interacting proteins are more highly expressed in lungs than other tissues of the body.
  2. The interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and human proteins are associated with various biological processes, such as lipid modification, DNA replication, vesicle trafficking, etc., as well as innate immune pathways like IFN signaling pathway and NF-kB signaling pathway.
  3. These proteins are more evolutionarily conserved than the average human protein, which means the human population may have similar versions of these proteins. A pandemic-level virus will usually target highly conserved proteins to spread widely within the human population.
  4. Out of the 332 human proteins, 67 human proteins or host factors are potentially druggable.

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What is a coronavirus?

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a family of large and enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that are classified into four genera, the alpha, beta, gamma, and delta coronaviruses. While gamma and delta coronaviruses mainly infect birds, alpha and beta coronaviruses are known to infect mammals and cause human respiratory illnesses such as the common cold, pneumonia, and severe diseases like SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. The name “coronavirus” derives from the Latin corona (meaning “crown”), which refers to the protein spikes that protrude from the virus and resemble a crown.

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is primarily transmitted through respiratory droplets from coughing, sneezing, or talking, which can lead to spread from person to person or from touching infected surfaces and objects. Symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, etc.

We've created an infographic that provides concise information about COVID-19, transmission, symptoms, protection advice, and vaccines and treatments undergoing development.

See the infographic

SARS-CoV-2 Human Reactive Proteins

Here are some insights about SARS-CoV-2 human reactive proteins from Gordon et al. (2020):

  • Expressed mRNA & proteins show the highest level of expression in lungs compared to other tissues.
  • Evolutionarily conserved. Target proteins are similar in the human population which is typical for a pandemic-level virus.
  • Compared to other virus proteins, the West Nile virus and tuberculous share a high overlap with SARS-CoV-2 target proteins in host protein interaction partners, which calls for more research on "typical lung infection pneumonia proteins".
  • Knowing the cellular mechanism these proteins are involved in, scientists can investigate how to interrupt these bioprocesses to prevent or hinder the infection.

SARS-CoV-2 Genome Analysis

SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA betacoronavirus with a 30kb genome that encodes 16 non-structural proteins (Nsp1-16), four structural proteins (spike, envelope, membrane, nucleocapsid), and 9 putative accessory factors.

The SARS-CoV-2 genome can encode as many as 14 open reading frames (Orfs). The replicase-transcriptase complex (RTC) is the assembly of Nsp1-16, which were auto-proteolytically processed from polyproteins expressed by 5’ Orf1a/Orf1ab. On the 3’ end of the viral genome, 9 predicted sub-genomic RNAs encode at least 13 Orfs which include the structural proteins and putative accessory factors.

Some available information about how SARS-CoV-2 utilizes the mentioned proteins has been summarized below.

Protein Description
Nsp1 Reppresses host antiviral response by hindering production of the cell’s proteins, increasing cell production of virus proteins, and inhibiting the infected cell from producing antiviral proteins.
Nsp2 Function unknown
Nsp3 Papain-like protease. Forms the Nsp3-Nsp4-Nsp6 complex that participates in viral replication by stimulating efficient translation of viral mRNA
Nsp4 Part of the Nsp3-Nsp4-Nsp6 complex that participates in viral replication by acting as a viroporin and associating with viroplasms.
Nsp5 Main protease (3C-like).
Nsp6 Forms the Nsp3-Nsp4-Nsp6 complex that participates in viral replication
Nsp7 Forms the Nsp7-Nsp8 primase complex as part of RNA polymerase
Nsp8 Forms the Nsp7-Nsp8 primase complex as part of RNA polymerase
Nsp9 ssRNA binding
Nsp10 N7-methyltransferase, essential for Nsp16 methyltransferase activity to hide viral RNA.
Nsp11 Short peptide
Nsp12 Primary RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Target of remdesivir.
Nsp13 Helicase/triphosphatase
Nsp14 3'-5' exonuclease
Nsp15 Uridine-specific endoribonuclease
Nsp16 RNA-cap 2’-O-methyltransferase. Works with Nsp10 to disguise viral RNA and escape from host cell sensing machinery.
S Spike protein that mediates ACE2 binding
Orf3a Activates the NLRP3 inflammasome thereby triggering inflammation
Orf3b Function unknown
E Envelope protein associated with virus morphogenesis and assembly
M Membrane glycoprotein, main component of the envelope
Orf6 Type I IFN antagonist
Orf7a Virus-induced apoptosis
Orf7b Function unknown
Orf8 Function unknown
N Nucleocapsid phosphoprotein that binds to the RNA genome
Orf9b Type 1 IFN antagonist
Orf9c Function unknown
Orf10 Function unknown

Although the Orf1ab of both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV genomes encode 16 Nsps and the 4 common coronavirus structural proteins, their complement of the 3’ open reading frames are different. The Orf3b and Orf10 of SARS-CoV-2 have low protein homology to SARS-CoV. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 encodes an intact Orf8, but SARS-CoV possesses Orf8a and Orf8b (Gordon et al., 2020).

Scientists continue to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 genomes, mechanisms, and phylogenetic networks at a pressing pace. As new discoveries about SARS-CoV-2 are made, the scientific community is working towards facilitating the development of drugs and vaccines to fight COVID-19 and other potential virus pandemics in the future.

References

Gordon, D.E., Jang, G.M., Bouhaddou, M., Xu, J., Obernier, K., O’Meara, M.J.,..., & Krogan, N.J. (2020). A SARS-CoV-2-Human Protein-Protein Interaction Map Reveals Drug Targets and Potential Drug-Repurposing. bioRxiv doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.22.002386

Hoffmann, M., Kleine-Weber, H., Schroeder, S., Krüger, N., Herrler, T., Erichsen, S.,..., & Pöhlmann, S. (2020).SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor. Cell. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052