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Binds cytosolic DNA directly, resulting in activation and synthesis of cGAMP, another messenger that binds to and activates TMEM173/STING, thereby triggering type-I interferon production (PubMed:28363908, PubMed:28314590). Also functions as an innate immune sensor of infection by retroviruses, such as HIV-1, by detecting the presence of reverse-transcribed DNA in the cytosol (PubMed:23929945).
|Sequence:||6; NC_000006.12 (73423711..73452297, complement)|
Expressed in the monocytic cell line THP1.
Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Cytoplasm, cytosol. Nucleus. In resting conditions, localizes at the cell membrane as a peripheral membrane protein by binding to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) (PubMed:30827685). Localization at the cell membrane is required to limit the recognition of self-DNA (PubMed:30827685). Following detection of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), released from the cell membrane into the cytosol in order to signal (PubMed:30827685). Upon transfection with dsDNA forms punctate structures that co-localize with DNA and Beclin-1 (BECN1) (PubMed:26