Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation.

Impairs regulatory T- cells (Treg) function in people with rheumatoid arthritis through FOXP3 dephosphorylation. Upregulates the expression of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which dephosphorylates the key'Ser-418' residue of FOXP3, thereby inactivating FOXP3 and producing Treg cells functionally defective (PubMed:23396208).