Leptin (LEP)

Key player in the regulation of energy balance and body weight control. Once released into the flow, has central and peripheral effects by binding LEPR, found in several cells, which results in the activation of several major signaling pathways (PubMed:17344214, PubMed:15899045, PubMed:19688109).

In the hypothalamus, functions as an appetite-regulating component that induces a decline in food intake and an increase in energy intake by inducing anorexinogenic factors and suppressing orexigenic neuropeptides, also regulates bone density and secretion of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal hormones. From the periphery, increases basal metabolism, affects reproductive function, modulates pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin secretion, is pro-angiogenic for endothelial cell and influences innate and adaptive immunity (By similarity) (PubMed:8589726, PubMed:11460888, PubMed:19688109, PubMed:24340098, PubMed:25060689).